The Boeing Chinook is a tandem rotor, medium-lift helicopter that meets tactical and combat support mission requirements for military forces around the world. The Chinook is the world’s most reliable and efficient transport helicopter, capable of handling useful loads up to 24,000 pounds (10,886 kg) and a maximum gross weight of up to 50,000 pounds (22,668 kg). Its tandem rotor configuration also provides exceptional handling qualities that enable the Chinook to operate in climatic,and crosswind conditions that typically keep other helicopters from flying.
Perhaps the largest challenge of our society is to find ways to replace the slowly but inevitably vanishing fossil fuel supplied by renewable resources and, at the same time, avoid negative effects from the current energy system on climate, environment and health. The quality of human life is to a large degree depends upon the availability of clean energy sources. The worldwide power consumption is expected to double in the next 3 decades because of the increase in world population and the rising demand of energy in the developing countries.
“But why, some say, the Moon? Why choose this as our goal? And they may well ask why climb the highest mountain? Why, 35 years ago, fly the Atlantic? We choose to go to the Moon. We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills; because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one we intend to win.”
-John F. Kennedy
Human beings have been historically curious about their surroundings and the mystery of the cosmos. Man has always wanted to discover new land and colonies these lands. One of man’s main amazement has been the moon. For centuries, Man was successful in colonising different parts of earth. But moon looked like an impossible dream for mankind. That was until the American government decided that it was time to send man to moon. Read more
The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) is a pair of imaging grating spectrometers. It is able to identify the chemical composition of a surface, atmosphere, or Saturn’s rings by measuring the visible and infrared energy. VIMS is in essence, a color camera that takes pictures in 352 different wavelengths between 300 nm and 5100 nm. This range, coupled with the ability to discern different wavelengths (called spectral resolution), allows the VIMS instrument to be able to very accurately quantify the light it detects. These data are used by the team members to carry out many different multidisciplinary investigations.
VIMS Scientific Objectives:
- To map the temporal behavior of winds, eddies, and other features on Saturn/Titan.
- To study the composition and distribution of atmospheric and cloud species on Saturn/Titan.
- To determine the composition and distribution of the icy satellite surface materials.
- To determine temperatures, internal structure, and rotation of Saturn’s deep atmosphere.
- To study the structure and composition of Saturn’s rings.
- To search for lightning on Saturn and Titan and for active volcanism on Titan.
- To observe Titan’s surface.
This high-resolution infrared image was taken during the Cassini spacecraft’s closest approach to Titan on Oct. 26, 2004. These images were obtained by Cassini’s visual and infrared mapping spectrometer instrument and show a bright, circular feature (8.5 degree latitude, minus 143.5 degree longitude) with two elongated wings extending westwards. Scientists think this feature might be a volcano.
The process includes the work of scientists from all over the world, technical employees at the University of Arizona (UofA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and science planners at the JPL to name a few of the key participants.
For more information on VIMS; visit
With Mars looming ever larger in front of it, NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory spacecraft and its Curiosity rover are in the final stages of preparing for entry, descent and landing on the Red Planet at 10:31 p.m. PDT Aug. 5 (1:31 a.m. EDT Aug. 6). Curiosity remains in good health with all systems operating as expected.
For more details, NASA also published an infographic as below:
“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
Finally, U.S president John Kennedy’s dream had come true. Apollo 11 was all set to take man to the moon. Millions of dollars were spent. Thousands had sacrificed their sweat and blood into making this project a success. Apollo 11 had on board the greatest and most skillful astronauts on earth.
The Crew consisted of:
- Neil Armstrong.
- Michael Collins
- Edwin “Buzz” E. Aldrin
A Saturn V launched Apollo 11 at the Kennedy Space Center on July 16, 1969 at 13:32:00 UTC. It entered orbit 12 minutes later. On July 20, 1969 the lunar module (LM) Eagle separated from the command module Columbia. As the descent began, Armstrong and Aldrin found that they were passing landmarks on the surface 4 seconds early and reported that they were “long”. They would land miles west of their target point.
When Armstrong looked outside, he saw that the computer’s landing target was in a boulder-strewn area just north and east of a 300 metres (980 ft.) diameter crater (later determined to be “West crater”, named for its location in the western part of the originally planned landing ellipse). Armstrong took semi-automatic control. Apollo 11 landed with less fuel than other missions, and the astronauts also encountered a premature low fuel warning. This was later found to have been due to greater propellant ‘slosh’ than expected, uncovering a fuel sensor.
First Moon Walk:
Although the official NASA flight plan called for a crew rest period before extra-vehicular activity, Armstrong requested that the EVA be started sooner. Once Armstrong and Aldrin were ready to go outside, Eagle was depressurized, the hatch was opened and Armstrong made his way down the ladder first. Armstrong then turned and set his left boot on the surface at 2:56 UTC July 21, 1969, then spoke the famous words “That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
Armstrong had decided on this statement following a train of thought that he had after launch and during the hours after landing. About 20 minutes after the first step, Aldrin joined Armstrong on the surface and became the second human to set foot on the Moon, and the duo began their tasks of investigating how easily a person could operate on the lunar surface. Early on they also unveiled a plaque commemorating their flight, and also planted the flag of the United States. The flag used on this mission had a metal rod to hold it horizontal from its pole. Since the rod did not fully extend, and the flag was tightly folded and packed during the journey, the flag ended up with a slightly wavy appearance, as if there were a breeze.
In the entire Apollo 11 photographic record, there are only five images of Armstrong partly shown or reflected. The mission was planned to the minute, with the majority of photographic tasks to be performed by Armstrong with their single camera. Armstrong’s final task was to leave a small package of memorial items to deceased Soviet cosmonauts Yuri Gagarin and Vladimir Komarov, and Apollo 1 astronauts Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee. The time spent on EVA during Apollo 11 was about two-and-a-half hours.
Return To Earth:
After they re-entered the LM, the hatch was closed and sealed. While preparing for the liftoff from the lunar surface, Armstrong and Aldrin discovered that in their bulky spacesuits, they had broken the ignition switch for the ascent engine. Using part of a pen, they pushed the circuit breaker in to activate the launch sequence. The three astronauts returned to Earth and splashed down in the Pacific Ocean.
After being released from an 18-day quarantine to ensure that they had not picked up any infections or diseases from the Moon, the crew were feted across the United States and around the world as part of a 45-day “Giant Leap” tour.